What is a pesticide? If you are wondering why the pesticide material is used for what purpose, here is the answer; The term pesticide refers to insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, and the like. It covers the whole chemical substances classified as.
Here is more information about pesticide…
Pesticides can also be divided into groups according to the origins of their active substances:
1. Inorganic materials
2. Natural organic substances
3. Synthetic organic substances
The use of pesticides is based on very ancient histories. B.C. Records of the preparation of insecticides against lice, fleas and donkeys were found on a 1500-papyrus. In the 19th century inorganic pesticides were used against pests, and after 1940, pesticides were made from organic chemicals, DDT and other well known insecticides and herbicides were discovered. Although up to 6,000 synthetic compounds have been patented, up to 600 of these have been commercially viable. The cultivated plants that are cultivated in our country are under the threat of disease and harmfulness that exceeds 200, and about 1/3 of the total crops are undergoing loss as there is not enough fighting. With the prevention of these losses, it is certain that pesticides will have a great potential for use for many years to come. The most intensively used groups for the use of pesticides, which are around 30,000 tons as formulations, are herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and oils, respectively. Pesticide is a mixture of substances or substances used to prevent, control or reduce harmful organisms. The pesticide can be a chemical agent, a biological agent such as a virus or a bacterium, antimicrobial, disinfectant, or any other means. Harmful organisms can be insect-causing insects, plant pathogens, weeds, soft players, birds, mammals, fish, worms, and microbes that damage human nutrients and property. Although there are some benefits of using pesticides, it can also cause some problems due to potential toxicity to humans and other animals.
It is used for the purpose of controlling or eliminating microorganisms and harmful microorganisms harmful to food during the production, consumption and storage of nutrients and for controlling the public health pests which can be used for the purpose of regulating the growth of plants and which carry nutrients or directly to humans and animals. called pesticide.
The first substances used as pesticides Arsenic and Sulfur species Next, botanical materials (such as nicotine) began to be used. Following this, pyrethrum obtained from chrysanthemum was obtained from 19th century. started to be used. In the following years, mercury and lead metal compounds also entered pesticide use. In 1939, the Swiss chemist Paul Mueller determined the pesticide properties of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and in 1942 he entered the market rapidly and widespread use. Scientists working on a new nerve gas in World War II found an organophosphate insecticide parathion and presented it to the market in 1943. Scientific research that began in the 1960s found DDT to be carcinogenic in rats and was banned in the US in 1971. It was abandoned voluntarily in England between 1974-84 and now totally forbidden.
Pesticide Living Damages
A pesticide can be a chemical agent or a biological agent such as a virus or bacteria. Since most chemical pesticides do not show selectivity to the target organism, organisms outside the target organism can also cause various diseases or even be fatal. Many pesticides are also harmful to humans. As a result of the use of living beings in the form of food by humans, they cause common diseases and unwanted distress in humans. Chemical pesticides and active ingredients have acute toxic effects. Many pesticides, including carbamates, organophosphates and chlorinated hydrocarbons, have genetoxic effects. Structural and numerical chromosome anomalies and sister chromatid exchanges were observed in these individuals in studies conducted in agriculture and pesticide exposed individuals.
Agricultural workers exposed to the chronic effects of pesticides have many genetic damages as well as liver, kidney and muscle disorders. The effect of pesticide on living things starts from the fetal life. These drugs pass through the placenta to the fetus, resulting in abortions, hyperpigmented and hyperkeratotic child births. In the animal experiments, it was observed that the pesticide marked radioactively and delivered to the mother after 5 hours passed the fetus from the placenta and placed in the eye, nervous system and liver of the fetus.
Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides threaten their live life by showing their effects directly on the peripheral and central nervous system. Many pesticides harm human beings and the environment. Initial work on this was in the beginning of the ’70s, during the preparation of UNEP Stockholm Human Environment Convention. Thirty years later, the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan and New Zealand decided to draft a global treaty by submitting to international pressures.
Within these studies, many chemical products which are commonly used in agriculture called COK (Persistent Organic Pollutants) have been banned except for special cases and it is forbidden to produce them in new chemicals which have the characteristics of COC. Within the scope of this agreement; aldrin, endrin, toxafen, chordan, dieldrin, heptacol, mirex, DDT and hexachlorobenzene and PCBs, which are industrial chemicals, were banned and stocks were followed up.
Agricultural medicines also have negative effects on blood cells. Organic phosphorous insecticides inhibit erythrocyte function by altering the membrane properties of erythrocytes (red blood cells). Some other pesticides cause degradation of the size and surface morphology of erythrocytes and the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant system enzymes. One of the most important effects of pesticides is inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. In this case, the sub-brain root goes to live death by suppression of the respiratory control centers. In a pesticide research, it was found that the pesticides cause TCA enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase) to be inhibited.
What are the types of pesticides?
The mechanism of a systemic pesticide is as follows: After the pesticide is absorbed by the plant, it moves up and down within the plant propagation bundles.
Insecticide: Insecticides are drugs used against pests.
Fungicide: They are drugs used against Fungus (Fungus).
Herbicide: They are drugs used against weeds.
Mollusite: They are medicines used against softbands.
Rodenticide: Drugs used against rodents.
Nematicide: They are medicines against nematodes.
Acaricide: Drugs used against mites.